When you’re ready to take it to the next level and work on dropping some serious body fat, there are three things you need: 1) a solid training program, such as my Shortcut To Shred program, 2) a solid diet plan, such as my Shortcut To Shred diet, and 3) a solid supplement regimen to aid the fat loss that’s been kick-started by the training and diet. Shred JYM is that supplement regimen in one product.
Like all the products in my JYM Supplement Science line, Shred JYM doesn’t cut any corners. There’s a reason that one serving of Shred JYM requires 6 capsules. That’s because one serving of Shred JYM provides you with 2,770 mg of active fat-burning ingredients that are backed by science. Look at any other fat burner on the market today and add up the dosing listed on the supplement facts panel. There are no products that come anywhere close to delivering 2,770 mg of active ingredients. Why? Because to many supplement companies, less is more. Not more for you, but more for them in regards to profit. Fat burners that require only one or two capsules per dose may sound convenient because you need to swallow fewer capsules, but they trade convenience for actual results.
Also like the rest of the JYM Supplement Science line, Shred JYM does NOT use proprietary blends. Every ingredient is listed on the supplement facts panel along with its actual dose proudly displayed. That’s because I have been educating consumers for over a decade on what the proper doses are of specific ingredients that can aid fat loss. With Shred JYM, you can rest assured that those ingredients are provided in the correct doses found to be most effective. Most of the other supplement companies don’t want you to know that information because then you will realize that each ingredient in their fat-loss formula is grossly under-dosed. So they hide the truth behind proprietary blends. That way, they can fool you into thinking that a dose of 1 or 2 capsules delivering just 300 – 800 mg of active ingredients, will help to enhance fat loss.
Shred JYM is the fat burner that you know is not only effective, but safe as well. All the ingredients in Shred JYM have been proven in clinical studies to be effective for promoting fat loss. Plus, they have all been shown to be safe. I wouldn’t create a product that wasn’t proven to be safe and expect you to use it. Remember, I use this product myself. So it HAS to be effective and it HAS to be safe!
Three-Stage Fat Loss
Shred JYM attacks body fat from three different angles that all work together to provide you the most effective strategy for cutting body fat. The ingredients in Shred JYM work in synergy with one another to create a 3-stage fat burning system. The ingredients I selected for Shred JYM work to increase the release of fat from the fat cells, help to carry more of that fat into the mitochondria, and increase your metabolic rate to burn up more of that fat.
If your goal is to drop body fat, then you need to reduce the size of your fat cells. The fat cells are where your body stores fat. Getting leaner doesn’t mean getting rid of fat cells. You are stuck with the fat cells that you already have … unless you get liposuction. To get leaner, you need to reduce the amount of fat your fat cells are storing so that they get smaller. That means you need to encourage more fat to leave your fat cells. The caffeine and synephrine in Shred JYM work via two different mechanisms to encourage a greater amount of fat to leave the fat cells than normal.
Getting the fat to leave your fat cells may be the first step to getting leaner, but it’s only 1/3 of the equation. Just because more fat leaves your fat cells does not necessarily mean that you will get leaner in the long term. That fat can easily get stored back into your fat cells if it is not used for fuel. The first step to getting that fat burned up for good is getting it into the mitochondria of the body’s cells. The mitochondria are basically the main energy plants of cells. It’s the mitochondria that basically take fat, carbs and even protein (at least their breakdown products) and convert them into usable energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). It’s ATP that your muscles use to contract during exercise.
The problem with most of the fat stored in your body and consumed in your diet, is that it needs to be escorted into the mitochondria. When you follow a fat-loss diet, exercise and use fat-burner supplements like caffeine and synephrine, you have more freed up fat than normal. This overloads the typical system in place that transports fat into the mitochondria. So, much of that fat doesn’t get into the mitochondria and eventually goes back to be stored in the fat cells. The acetyl-L-carnitine in Shred JYM helps to ramp up the transport system and get more of the freed up fat into the mitochondria. That’s because carnitine is a critical component of the transport mechanism. Research confirms that supplementing with carnitine, such as acetyl-L-carnitine, allows for more fat to get into the mitochondria and be burned for fuel.
The third step to making sure that all that freed up fat is burned away for good in the mitochondria, is to crank up the body’s energy requirements. The simplest way to do this is to exercise. Exercise burns up more calories. That means that your mitochondria are burning up more carbs, fat and protein to make more ATP. Exercise also helps to burn more calories at rest, at least for several hours after the workout is over. But at other times of day, your metabolic rate will be much lower. This is especially true the longer you diet and the lower your calorie intake gets. The EGCG from the green tea extract, capsaicin from the Capsimax® Cayenne pepper extract, synephrine from Advantra Z® , caffeine and L-tyrosine all work to ramp up the activity of the mitochondria so that more of that freed up fat is converted into ATP. It’s this three-step process that leads to long-term fat loss.
The ingredients in Shred JYM are all in the doses I have long recommended to work with your diet and training program to enhance these three steps for the greatest and fastest fat loss while maintaining more muscle. It’s the fat burner that you not only feel working, but can see working. It’s the fat burner that I created for myself to use when I am prepping for a photo shoot. And it’s the fat burner that I created for you to use, too.
Shred JYM features:
>> 6 research-backed ingredients provided in their proper doses.
>> 1.5 grams (1,500 milligrams) of acetyl-L-carnitine to help carry more fat into the mitochondria where it is burned away for good.
>> 500 milligrams of green-tea extract to increase metabolic rate and burn up more calories and more fat.
>> 200 milligrams of caffeine to release more fat from your body’s fat cells so that it can be burned away as fuel.
>> 500 milligrams of L-tyrosine to help enhance your mood and alertness.
>> 50 milligrams of Capsimax® Cayenne pepper extract to boost metabolism and reduce hunger, which means you consume fewer calories but burn more.
>> 20 milligrams Advantra Z® synephrine to release more fat from fat cells, boost metabolic rate and fat burning, as well as reduce hunger.
Shred JYM goes head-to-head with the five leading fat-burner products on the market today:
|Serving size 2,750 mg||Serving size 826 mg||Serving size 594 mg||Serving size 2,445 mg||Serving size 295 mg||Serving size 680 mg|
|NOT included||NOT included||NOT included||NOT included||NOT included|
|Green tea extract
|NOT included||Dose is proprietary||Dose is proprietary||NOT included||NOT included|
|NOT included||150 mg||NOT included||NOT included||NOT included|
|270 mg||160 mg||150 mg||Dose is proprietary||Dose is proprietary|
|NOT included||Dose is proprietary||Dose is proprietary||NOT included||NOT included|
|Advantra Z® Synephrine
|NOT included||NOT included||NOT included||Dose is proprietary||NOT included|
As you can see from this table, the leading fat-burner formulas either don’t include most of the most critical ingredients to aid fat loss at all, or have them as “proprietary blends,” which really means that they’re actually under-dosed. Nothing on the market even comes close to stacking up to Shred JYM.
Let’s get out the microscope and take closer look at each of the six ingredients and the doses used to make Shred JYM a safe and effective fat burner.
*1.5 grams (1500 mg) of Acetyl-L-Carnitine
- This form of carnitine is absorbed better by the body than regular L-carnitine. The acetyl group also allows it to be taken up by the brain, which can promote better brain function and mood, as well as enhance energy levels. This can be particularly important when dieting.
- The most critical role that carnitine plays in the body is in helping to transport fat across the mitochondria of cells. The mitochondria are essentially all cells’ power plants where the majority of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is derived for energy. Once the fatty acids pass into the mitochondria, they can be oxidized (“burned”) to generate ATP. Without adequate carnitine, most dietary fats cannot get into the mitochondria and be burned for fuel.
- Several research studies support the notion that supplementing with carnitine enhances fat burning, not just during exercise, but also at rest. Its ability to increase the amount of fat burned at rest means that this supplement has solid potential to aid fat loss and prevent fat gain during bulking periods.
*500 mg of Green-Tea Extract
- Green tea (Camellia sinensis) contains compounds called catechins, including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main catechin responsible for the thermogenic effect of green tea. Its major thermogenic effect comes from the ability of EGCG to inhibit an enzyme that normally breaks down norepinephrine, the neurotransmitter involved in regulating metabolic rate and fat-burning. By inhibiting the enzyme, you maintain higher levels of norepinephrine, which encourages greater calorie and fat burn.
- Green tea has also been shown to enhance insulin sensitivity, which allows for better control of blood sugar levels throughout the day. This can further aid fat loss and prevent fat gain when following a mass gain diet.
- In addition to aiding fat loss, green tea has been shown to have a laundry list of benefits. These include health benefits, such as a reduced risk of cancer, heart disease and diabetes, as well as performance benefits, which include enhanced muscle and joint recovery.
- While drinking green tea has become more popular lately, supplementing with green-tea extract is far more beneficial. Research confirms that the catechins in green tea, such as EGCG, are absorbed better in supplement form than in tea form.
*200 mg of Caffeine
- Caffeine is recognized around the world for its ability to enhance alertness and brain function. Therefore, its role in fat loss is assumed to be due mainly to its ability to increase calorie burn.
- While research confirms that caffeine does boost the number of calories burned, it also contributes to fat loss by helping to release more fat from the fat cells and prevent fat storage in the fat cells.
- Caffeine is now credited with providing a multitude of health benefits, such as improved cognitive function, reduced risk of cognitive decline with aging and reduced risk of diabetes, not to mention its numerous performance benefits.
*500 mg of L-Tyrosine
- This amino acid has a proven track record for increasing alertness, mental focus, mood and energy, especially when combined with caffeine as in Shred JYM.
- The main way that tyrosine accomplishes all this is due to the fact that it is used in the body to produce several important hormones and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine and thyroid hormones. Increased levels of these hormones and neurotransmitters ramps you up, making you more alert and focused. This is important when dieting as lowering your calorie intake can decrease your energy levels, mood, and mental sharpness.
- Maintaining higher epinephrine, norepinephrine and thyroid hormones also aids fat loss.
- It is also suggested that during times of stress, such as when dieting and training hard, the body’s ability to produce its own tyrosine from the amino acid phenyalaine is compromised. So taking L-tyrsoine before workouts ensures that your body has adequate levels to produce the hormones and neurotransmitters discussed above.
*50 mg of Capsimax®Cayenne Pepper Extract
- Capsaicin is the major pungent substance in red hot peppers, such as cayenne chili peppers. It also works to ramp up metabolic activity, which increase the amount of calories and fat your body burns. And it also reduces hunger and food intake so that you consumer fewer calories yet burn more.
- Research confirms that supplementing the diet with capsaicin leads to significant fat loss over time.
- One problem with consuming hot red pepper extract is that it is extremely spicy. Many people cannot tolerate the “heat” from hot peppers, which irritates the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Capsimax® uses technology to avoid the irritation but deliver the benefits of capsaicin.
- Capsimax® is a patented form of pepper extract that delivers 300,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU). It uses the OmniBead™ beadlet technology to encapsulate the pepper extract. The coating is designed to withstand the highly acidic, low pH levels of the stomach then release the capsaicin in the higher pH environment of the intestines.
*20 mg of Synephrine from Advantra Z®
- Synpehrine is the active ingredient in the plant Citrus aurantium, also known as bitter orange. It stimulates specific receptors that increase the release of fat from fat cells and it increases metabolic rate while also decreasing appetite.
- Several studies confirm that synephrine is both effective for fat loss and is very safe, with no negative effects on blood pressure or blood chemistry
- Advantra Z® is a patented form of Citrus aurantium extract that delivers a precise and potent dose of synephrine.
Buzzigoli, G. and Ferrannini, E. Effects of acute hypercarnitinemia during increased fatty substrate oxidation in man. Metabolism 42(5):594-600, 1993.
Muller, D. M., et al. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on in vivo long-chain fatty acid oxidation in healthy adults. Metabolism 51(11):1389-91, 2002.
Stephens, F. B., et al. New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. The Journal of Physiology 581: 431-444, 2007.
Cavallini, G., et al. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6.
Malaguarnera, M., et al. L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1738-44.
Diepvens, K., et al. Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 292(1):R77-85, 2007.
Berube-Parent. S., et al. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr 94: 432–436, 2005.
Borchardt, R. T. and Huber, J. A. Catechol Omethyltransferase. Structure- activity relationships for inhibition by flavonoids. J Med Chem 18: 120–122, 1975.
Dulloo, A G., et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin-polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 70: 1040–1045, 1999.
Dulloo, A. G., et al. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes 24: 252–258, 2000.
Nagao, T., et al. Tea catechins suppress accumulation of body fat in humans. J Oleo Sci 50: 717–728, 2001.
Choo, J. J. Green tea reduces body fat accretion caused by high-fat diet in rats through beta-adrenoceptor activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. J Nutr Biochem 14: 671–676, 2003.
Chantre, P. and Lairon, D. Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine 9: 3–8, 2002.
Kao, Y. H., et al. Modulation of endocrine systems and food intake by green tea epigallocatechin gallate. Endocrinology 141: 980 –987, 2000.
Hase, T., et al. Anti-obesity effects of tea catechins in humans. J Oleo Sci 50: 599–605, 2001.
Nagao, T., et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 81: 122–129, 2005.
Shixian, Q., yet al. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. J Med Food. 2006 Winter;9(4):451-8.
Harada, U., et al. Effects of the long-term ingestion of tea catechins on energy expenditure and dietary fat oxidation in healthy subjects. J Health Sci 51: 248 –252, 2005.
Diepvens, K., et al. Effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during weight loss in overweight females. Br J Nutr 94: 1026–1034, 2005.
Hursel, R., et al. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Obesity 33, 956–961, 2009.
Shimotoyodome, A., et al. Exercise and green tea extract stimulate fat oxidation and prevent obesity in mice. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 37(11):1884-92, 2005.
Maki, K. C., et al. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults.J Nutr. 2009 Feb;139(2):264-70.
Venables, M. C. Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans.Am J Clin Nutr. 87(3):778-84, 2008.
Kerksick, C., et al. Changes in muscle damage markers, soreness, and strength after a 14-day prophylactic period of antioxidant supplementation followed by eccentric exercise. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: Vol. 20(4):e21, 2006.
Ahmed, S-U., et al. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) differentially inhibits interleukin-1 beta-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -13 in human chondrocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):767-73.
Rasheed, Z., et al. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human chondrocytes.Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11(3):R71.
Henning, S. M., et al. Bioavailability and antioxidant activity of tea flavanols after consumption of green tea, black tea, or a green tea extract supplement. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 80(6):1558-64.
Green, R. J., et al. Common tea formulations modulate in vitro digestive recovery of green tea catechins. Mol Nutr Food Res. 51(9):1152-62, 2007.
Acheson, K. J., et al. Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in normal weight and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 989–997, 1980.
Astrup, A., et al. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 51: 759–767, 1990.
Bracco, D., et al. Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 269: E671–E678, 1995.
Dulloo, A. G., et al. Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 49: 44 –50, 1989.
Hollands, M. A., et al. A simple apparatus for comparative measurements of energy expenditure in human subjects: the thermic effect of caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 2291–2294, 1981.
Yoshida, T., et al. Relationship between basal metabolic rate, thermogenic response to caffeine, and body weight loss following combined low calorie and exercise treatment in obese women. Int J Obes 18: 345–350, 1994.
Astrup, A. and Toubro, S. Thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and caffeine in man. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 17 Suppl 1: S41-S43, 1993.
Dulloo, A. G. Ephedrine, xanthines and prostaglandin-inhibitors: actions and interactions in the stimulation of thermogenesis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 17 Suppl 1: S35-S40, 1993.
Bracco, D., et al. Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 269: E671–E678, 1995.
Beck, TW, Housh, TJ, Schmidt, R, et al. “The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2006, 20(3), 506–510.
Hogervorst E, et al., “Caffeine improves physical and cognitive performance during exhaustive exercise.” Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Oct;40(10):1841-51.
Hudson, GM, Green, M, Bishop, P, et al. “Effects of caffeine and aspirin on resistance training performance, RPE and pain perception.” Poster presented at ACSM Annual Meeting, May 30–June 2, New Orleans, LA.
Del Coso, J., et al. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013 Apr;38(4):368-74.
Motl RW, O’Connor PJ, Dishman RK. “Effect of caffeine on perceptions of leg muscle pain during moderate intensity cycling exercise.” J Pain. 2003 Aug;4(6):316-21.
Echeverri, D., et al. Caffeine’s vascular mechanisms of action. International Journal of Vascular Medicine, 2010.
Umemura, T., et al. Effects of acute administration of caffeine on vascular function. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Dec 1;98(11):1538-41.
Duncan, M. J. and Hankey, J. The effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various psychological measures during submaximal cycling. Physiol Behav. 2013 May 27;116-117:60-5.
Spence, A., et al. A Comparison of Caffeine versus Pseudoephedrine on Cycling Time-Trial Performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. In press, 2013.
Del Coso J, Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition. Amino Acids. 2013 Jun;44(6):1511-9.
Deijen, J. B., et al. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain Res Bull. 1999 Jan 15;48(2):203-9.
Deijen, J. B. and Orlebeke, J. F. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Res Bull. 1994;33(3):319-23.
Owasoyo, J. O., et al. Tyrosine and its potential use as a countermeasure to performance decrement in military sustained operations. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1992 May;63(5):364-9.
Kawada, T., et al. Capsaicin-induced beta-adrenergic action on energy metabolism in rats: influence of capsaicin on oxygen consumption, the respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 183: 250–256, 1986.
Watanabe, T., et al. Capsaicin, a pungent principle of hot red pepper, evokes catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla of anesthetized rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142: 259–264, 1987.
Kawada, T., et al. Some pungent principles of spices cause the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamine in anesthetized rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 188: 229–233, 1988.
Osaka, T., et al. Thermogenesis mediated by a capsaicin-sensitive area in the ventrolateral medulla. Neuroreport 11: 2425–2428, 2000.
Watanabe, T., et al. Adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve and catecholamine secretion excitation caused by capsaicin in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 255: E23–E27, 1988.
Yoshida T., et al. Effects of capsaicin and isothiocyanate on thermogenesis of interscapular brown adipose tissue in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 34: 587–594, 1988.
Yoshioka, M., et al. Effects of red-pepper diet on the energy metabolism in men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 41: 647–656, 1995.
Kawada, T., et al. Effects of capsaicin on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet. J Nutr 116: 1272–1278, 1986.
Henry, C. J. and Emery, B. Effect of spiced food on metabolic rate. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40: 165–168, 1986.
Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., et al. Sensory and gastrointestinal satiety effects of capsaicin on food intake. Int J Obes 29: 682–688, 2005.
Yoshioka, M., et al. Combined effects of red pepper and caffeine consumption on 24 h energy balance in subjects given free access to foods. Br J Nutr 85: 203–211, 2001.
Yoshioka, M., et al. Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br J Nutr 82: 115–123, 1999.
Yoshioka, M., et al. Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women. Br J Nutr 80: 503–510, 1998.
Lejeune, M. P. G. M., et al. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br J Nutr 90: 1–10, 2003.
Ryan, E. D., et al. Acute effects of a thermogenic nutritional supplement on energy expenditure and cardiovascular function at rest, during low-intensity exercise, and recovery from exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 23(3):807-17, 2009.
Bloomer, R. J., et al. Effect of oral intake of capsaicinoid beadlets on catecholamine secretion and blood markers of lipolysis in healthy adults: a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Lipids Health Dis. 15;9:72, 2010.
Stohs, S. J., et al. Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. Int J Med Sci. 8(4):295-301, 2011.
Stohs, S. J., et al. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci. 9(7):527-38, 2012.
Sale, C., et al. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. International Journal of Obesity 1:10, 2006.
Gougeon, R., et al. Increase in the thermic effect of food by adrenergic amines extracted from Citrus aurantium. Obesity Research 13(7):1187-94, 2005.
Zenk, J. L., et al. Effect of multi-ingredient weight-loss product on metabolic rate and body composition. Nutrition 21:179-185, 2005.
Preuss, H. G., et al. Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight reduction replacement for ephedra: An overview. Journal of Medicine 33:1-4, 2002.
Stohs, S. J., et al. A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2001.
Stohs, S. J., et al. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Phytotherapy Research, 2011.
Kaats, G.R. et al. A 60day double-blind, placebo controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. Food and Chemical Toxicology 55:358-362, 2013.
Seifert, J. G., et al. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. International Journal of Medical Sciences 8(3):192-197, 2011.
Stohs, S. J. and Preuss, H. G. Stereochemical and physiological differences between naturally occurring p-synephrine and synthetic p-synephrine. Journal of Functional Foods 4:2-5, 2012.